Not just one activity. There are several types of metabolic surgery and this pathology, as doctors call them. They work in one of the following ways:
- Limit the amount of food stored in the stomach so that you eat less and lose weight .
- Prevents the digestive absorbing some of the calories and nutrients in the foods you eat.
You need to gain a lot of extra pounds to be a candidate for bariatric surgery:
- Body mass index ( BMI ) of 40 or more ( overweight over 100 pounds
- BMI between 35-40 (about 80 pounds overweight) and you have diabetes or metabolic syndrome, asthma, heart disease, diabetes, or obstructive sleep apnea. (Your doctor will have a complete list.)
- BMI between 30-35 and you have a certain type of diabetes or a combination of other health conditions called metabolic syndrome.
Types of weight loss surgery
There are many different types. Some, like stomach “sleeves” and stomach strips, shrink your stomach. They are limited surgeries. Other operations, such as a duodenal obstruction, only pass through part of the intestine, so you absorb less food. Doctors call these non-absorption surgeries.
Weigh the pros and cons
Your doctor will examine you carefully to check that you are physically and mentally ready for the surgery, and ready to commit to making the major changes needed to lose weight. You will discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure you are considering. Your doctor may ask you to do certain things before surgery, such as quit smoking, lose weight, and make sure your blood sugar is under control.
Preparing for surgery
Your doctor will tell you exactly what you need to do. supplements herbal , 1 week before surgery. You will only need to eat or drink liquids for the preceding 24-48 hours. You will be under general anesthesia during the surgery.
Your surgeon will use an open or laparoscopic approach. Laparoscopy leaves smaller scars and tends to have fewer complications and faster recovery time. For this procedure, the doctor only needs to make several small, “keyhole” cuts. She’ll use a thin, bright instrument, called an endoscope, which will show what’s going on inside on a screen in the operating room. For open surgery, you will have an 8 to 10 inch cut across your abdomen.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
During this procedure, your surgeon will use a surgical stapler to create a small pouch to make your new stomach. This bag will hold about 1 cup of food. The rest of the stomach will still be there, but food won’t go to it.
Make a bypass through the stomach
Next, your surgeon will cut your small intestine outside of your stomach. She’ll attach one end of it to the stomach sac and the other end to lower into the small intestine, forming a “Y” shape. That’s the skipping part of the procedure. The rest of your stomach is still there. It delivers chemicals from the pancreas to help digest food from small sacs. Doctors use endoscopy for most gastrectomy cases.
In this surgery, the surgeon removes most of your stomach (75%) and creates a tubular stomach, also known as a gastric sleeve, that remains attached to your small intestine. After surgery, your stomach will only be able to hold about 2-3 ounces. You will feel full sooner because your stomach is smaller. You also won’t feel hungry because most of the tissue that produces the “hunger hormone,” called ghrelin, will be gone. This is not a reversible procedure.
Adjustable gastric band (AGB or Running Band)
Your surgeon will wrap an inflatable ring around the top of your abdomen. She’ll inflate the belt, partially compressing the stomach to create a small pocket with a narrow opening into the rest of the organ. She may use an endoscope to do this. When you eat, the food pushes against the wall of your stomach and sends signals to your brain to curb your cravings . You can re-adjust or remove the strap at any time.
Vertical gastric band (VGB, or “gastric staple”)
Doctors don’t use this method as often as they used to, because newer, better techniques are available. It works like this: A surgeon cuts a hole in the upper part of the stomach and places a surgical stapler in the stomach toward the top of it, creating a small pouch. The surgeon then threads a plastic strip through the hole, wrapping it around the bottom end of the bag to prevent stretching. Food moves from the pouch through a small opening to the rest of the stomach.
This is a malabsorption process, which means it cuts down on the calories and nutrients you absorb from food. First, your surgeon will create a small pouch from your stomach. The bag will only hold about 4-8 ounces, so you’ll need to eat a lot less. The surgeon will then make an incision through the rest of your stomach and most of your small intestine. Doctors often reserve this surgery for those whose weight needs to be lost the most, because you’re missing out on a lot of nutrients.
No matter what type of surgery you have, your surgeon will close any cuts with sutures or a surgical stapler. You’ll stay in the hospital for a short time to make sure you’re okay. You’ll take pain medication and your doctor will monitor you closely for any problems, such as low blood sugar, dehydration, or blood clots.
Eating and drinking after weight loss surgery
Initially, you will be on a diet. After a few weeks, you can eat solid foods. You will work closely with a dietitian familiar with weight loss surgery to create a meal plan. You may not be able to eat what you did before. You have to eat smaller portions and fewer calories. You’ll need to make sure you’re getting enough nutrients, which means taking supplements.
How much weight will you lose?
Weight loss can be significant in some cases – up to a pound a day for the first 3 months. Combined surgery, which causes malabsorption and gastric reduction, leads to more weight loss than restrictive surgery alone. Strict malabsorption processes cause the most weight loss but can make it difficult to get the nutrients you need.
Other health benefits
If you have high blood pressure, diabetes, or other weight-related health problems, they may improve or go away after surgery. Work with your doctor to adjust any medications you take for those conditions. Losing weight can also help with arthritis , pain or sleep apnea. You may also find it easier to be physically active.
Lifestyle changes after surgery
Long-term commitment is required to ensure lasting results and weight loss. So you have to change the lifestyle that you can live with forever. You’ll need to eat several small meals throughout the day, get adequate nutrition, and make exercise a part of your daily routine.
Risk of surgery
All activities carry some risk. For weight loss surgery, there is a small risk for serious complications. Those most at risk are those who are older, have a history thrombosis (blood clots) and are very obese . The best way to avoid complications is to visit your doctor and stick to your prescribed diet and lifestyle.
Complications after surgery
People who have had bariatric surgery are at increased risk of problems such as:
- Blood clots
- ulcer Stomach
- Gallstones due to weight loss
- Not getting enough nutrients
- Problems with the gastric band or sleeve (if you have one of those procedures)
In areas where you lose weight, your skin may sag or sag. You may want to consider plastic surgery to remove that excess skin, but you may need to wait at least 18 months to do so. Also, some health insurance policies don’t cover it.
Gastrectomy can also cause food and drink to move too quickly through your small intestine. Symptoms include nausea , weakness, sweating , fainting, and sometimes diarrhea after eating. You may also not be able to eat sweets unless you feel very weak. To avoid these problems, follow your dietitian’s advice. Let your doctor know if you have any of these symptoms.
Supplement for low nutritional levels
After weight loss surgery malabsorption, many people do not absorb vitamins A , D, E, K, B-12, iron , copper, calcium and other nutrients as before. Supplements can help you get what your body needs and help prevent conditions like anemia and osteoporosis. Ask your doctor which one you should take. You will need to have regular lab tests to make sure you are getting enough vitamins and minerals.
Adjust to your new life
You may feel many different emotions after weight loss surgery. You may be excited or excited to start losing weight. You may also feel overwhelmed or frustrated by the changes you have to make in your diet, activity, and lifestyle. These ups and downs are normal. Talk to your doctor if you have concerns or questions as you get used to your new body.
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